Mesothelioma is one of the forms of cancer that occurs due to inhaling asbestos fiber. It is primarily found in construction materials. People dealing with asbestos-containing products have to be extremely careful as it is the primary cause of mesothelioma. Epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid cells are the three forms of mesothelioma cells. In mesothelioma cells, asbestos exposure induces mutations and variations. The epithelial cells are found in most mesothelioma diagnoses. Every mesothelioma cell has a different impact on the prognosis and treatment, so every patient should know which cell type has affected them.
Different forms of mesothelioma cells can appear and develop in the body. Epithelial cells are most common and easy to diagnose and treat. On the other hand, Sarcomatoid cells are not found commonly and are challenging to treat. Every cell requires different treatment, and doctors analyze the cancer pathology report to determine the mesothelioma cell type of patient. The accurate cell type information is critical for treating and creating the right treatment plan. Let’s find out in detail about the types of mesothelioma cells and their effects.
Mesothelioma cells are sharp and uniform, and they multiply in the human body by stocking together. Epithelial cells are found in over 50% of the cases, making it the most common mesothelioma cell type. It starts to develop in prominent nuclei that gradually spread across the body.
Luckily, the treatment methods for patients with epithelial cells are more effective than other mesothelioma cell types. Because different cell types are rare, treating epithelial mesothelioma is much easier than eventually making the prognosis better.
Patients diagnosed with epithelial cells usually have a better survival rate than other cell types. The average time is one to two years after diagnosis for individuals having these types of cells. On the other hand, other factors are included in the survival of patients with epithelial mesothelioma, including age and stage of cancer. That is why the recovery process varies among patients. Treatments like surgery and radiation are suggested for patients having mesothelioma.
These cells have a spindle shape and contain an irregular configuration. They are known to grow more rapidly than epithelial cells because they do not stick together while developing in your body. In 20% of mesothelioma cases, sarcomatoid cells are found.
Sarcomatoid is a much more aggressive type and should be diagnosed in advanced stages to increase survival. This type of cancer has limited treatment options as it builds less clear tumors, which are tough to treat even through surgery.
Biphasic cells are the second most commonly found mesothelioma cells, combined with epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells. Every cell contains around 20% of the tumor mass and accounts for approximately 30% of mesothelioma cases. Treatment options like surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are available for biphasic mesothelioma. If there are lesser sarcomatoid cells in biphasic cells, recovery chances are higher.
Each cell has different characteristics that doctors examine through a microscope. For example, epithelial cells are of microscopic protrusion, and sarcomatoid cells consist of elongated nuclei. Doctors assess these histological features for diagnosis. It helps them to determine prognosis and to create treatment strategies.
Treatment for Different Cell Types
Every cell type responds differently to a treatment. Epithelial cells are the most responsive type for the treatment, which also helps in a better prognosis. Sarcomatoid cells are known as least responsive for treatment because their tumors are hard to remove through surgeries.
Biphasic cells consist of some sarcomatoid cells, claiming that treatment can be less effective. Having more epithelial and fewer sarcomatoid cells always leads to smooth treatment procedures and recovery.
The appearance of various cell types differs from each other, which makes the diagnosis process challenging. For example, it can be tough to differentiate between mesothelioma cells and adenocarcinoma cells. It requires significant experience and the competence of doctors to spot the difference between these cell types.
A team is responsible for diagnosing mesothelioma that consists of surgeons, pathologists, and other medical staff. They work and coordinate with each other to figure out the mesothelioma cells of the patient.
The histology process consists of three phases: biopsy, stain, and study. A tumor is obtained through surgery and then transferred to the lab—the histotechnician preserves, studies, and stains the sample. Special chemicals are used in this process to identify the appearance of the cells.
After mounting, studying, and embedding the cells, the histotechnician collaborates with a pathologist to determine the cancer type.
Regardless of whatever cell type of mesothelioma you have, it is essential to seek the proper treatment at the correct time to increase your survival chances. You must consult an experienced mesothelioma specialist to make suitable recommendations and ensure the best treatment. It will help you know the cell type and seek treatment accordingly. Consulting a non-specialist may not be the right option because it can lead to a wrong diagnosis, creating further complications. The immune system of every Individual’s body is different, so it does not mean that you should lose hope after getting diagnosed with mesothelioma. Stay strong, determined, and follow the right treatment plan to regain your health.